300 750: Polynesians arrive by outrigger canoe.
1778: British explorer Captain James Cook discovers" the Hawaiian Islands. 1779 Captain Cook is killed.
1810: King Kamehameha the Great unites all the islands.
1813: The first pineapple plants are introduced.
1817: Coffee is first planted.
1819: Prince Liholiho ascends the throne as Kamehameha II (1819-1824). He also abandons many taboos.
1825 1854: The reign of King Kamehameha III.
1848: The Great Mahele is signed by King Kamehameha III which allows commoners and haoles to own land.
1874 1891: The reign of King David Kalakaua.
1885: The first contract laborers arrive from Japan.
1892: Macadamia nut trees are first planted.
1893: Queen Liliuokalani surrenders to the United States.
1898: Hawaii is annexed to the United States.
1922: Prince Jonah Kalanianaole Kuhio dies. He was the last powerful member of the royal Hawaiian family.
1941: December 7th, Japanese bomb Pearl Harbor.
1959: Hawai`i becomes the 50th state.
1983: Kilauea volcano erupts on the Big Island.
1987: John Waihee, first governor of Hawaiian descent.
1995: The last sugar plantation on the Big Island closes.
VEGETATIVE ZONES - Source: Sohmer and Gustafson,1987:40,54
Zone Elevation (ft)
Strand sea level
Coastal 0 - 900
Dryland Forest 750 - 2,700
Mixed Mesic Forest 2,250 - 3,750
Rain Forest 1,350 - 5,100
Subalpine Woodland 6,000 - 13,000+
THE AHUPUA'A: A political and ecological system. The typical ahupua'a
ran like an inverted wedge from the mountains to the sea. You can visualize
them as watershed management districts and also as pizza slices. The ahupua'a
provided the responsible chief with valuable fishing rights, cultivable
lands, upland timber, and bird-catching privileges in the higher mountains.
AHUPUA'A: A QUICK SKETCH: The unit of land most under consistent management were sections of the ahupua'as called 'ili-aina. 'Ili-aina's were usually allotted to 'ohana (extended families) who lived on them and cultivated them.
During the harvest, or Makahiki, taxes were collected from each family for the entire Ahupua'a. Lowland crops consisted of Taro and Sweet Potato (depending on water and soil type). Tree crops such as Breadfruit, and Kukui (candle nut) were also grown. Upland crops included dry-farmed taro, sweet potato, and yam, plus timber and bird-catching at the upper altitudes.
USES OF HAWAI`IAN PLANTS
TRADITIONAL HAWAIAN LAND USE
Often soils were improved with green manures such as hau and kukui leaves and branches.
Fields were bordered with plantings of bananas, wauke or paper mulberry, and breadfruit.
Taro (used to make poi) and sweet potatoes
Groves of bamboo and occasional coconuts were established at lower elevations.
At higher elevations, planting and gathering of forest resources was
IMPACTS ON HAWAIIAN FORESTS
Sandalwood trade - in the 1800s, exploitation of sandalwood opened up much of forest to exotic species
Cattle - large portions of Hawaii have been grazed since the 1800s
Sugar cane industry - habitat destruction and water quality problems
Fires: resulting from other impacts
Native plants and animals have been harvested,
I introduced plants and animals have proliferated
genetic loss in important commercial species such as koa
loss of Biodiversity
THE HAWAII FOREST INDUSTRY
Revenues >$30 million/ yr., representing about 0.11% of the Gross State Product.
Hawai`i has a high ratio (ranks in the top 10% nationally) of forest land in relation to the total area of the state.
U.S.'s only true tropical rainforest.
MODERN FORESTRY ENTERPRISE
Most of the state's timberland are on Hawai`i.
Forestry-related businesses include seedling nurseries, agroforestry, consultants, ecotourism, milling and lumber kilns. Ranks in the top 10 of the state's diversified agricultural commodities.
The state's largest commercial tree farm planted about 16,000 acres of short-rotation Eucalyptus grandis and
Eucalyptus saligna on former Hamakua sugarcane land. Wood will probably be exported as chips.
Preliminary data indicate too much checking for good building or furniture material.
Hamakua was only 7% of investment.
Variable prices and markets
High up-front costs
Uncertainty of reclaiming investment after 25-50 years
Revenues are worth more if earned earlier, while costs are less costly if incurred later due to discount rates.
State Forest Stewardship Program
Carbon Offset Credits
KOA: AN INTRODUCTION
Koa is a large evergreen hardwood that evolved in Hawaii.
Koa is the largest native tree and the second most common.
Koa trees are believed to grow as old as 200 years.
There are presently more than 20,000 acres being grown commercially.
Koa trees are often harvested when they are over 50 yrs.
Native koa forests provide unique wildlife habitat, critical watershed
recharge areas and recreation.
PROPERTIES OF KOA WOOD - Koa wood is similar in hardness and weight to walnut.
AGRICULTURE IN HAWAI`I
Vast tracts of land remain undeveloped on the Big Island. Agriculture is the main economic activity, although tourism is on the rise.
Major crops include sugar, macadamia nuts, papaya, bananas, coffee, and flowers. Viable animal industries are present as well.
There are some agroforestry demonstrations, and many small tropical fruit producers.
Obstacles to viable agroforestry production include: small land holdings,
fruit fly, lack of processing facilities, distance from and access to markets.
PRIMARY TREE CROPS
OTHER TREE CROPS
Mango, Jack fruit, Mangosteen, Cherimoya, Soursop, Lychee, Rambutan, Starfruit (Carambola), Avocado, Passion Fruit, Guava